2

2.2 A review of the PE ratio and the earnings growth rate literature
Price earning ration and growth rate are different measurement tools used to valuate an investment. In (Chan et al.2003), study price earning defined as the current closing stock price divided by the same period earnings and growth rate defined as the earning of the current or following period, that use to study the correlation between price earning and growth rate.
In years after that, a study for (Thomas and Zhang (2006), Wu (2009) working paper) used the current stock price and divided it by the next period expected earnings as forward price earning ration, and the short-term earnings growth was calculated forecasted data. After that calculation the correlation between price earning ration and growth was either tested or formed a portfolios depending on price earning ration or earning price in order to examine if the higher price earning ration was following the period earning growth rate. The result of studying the relationship between price earning and growth of a study done by Murphy and Stevenson (1967), that was no systematic relationship between those variables and the price earning was conceded as unreliable variable to value a firm achievement in the next coming periods.
Many studies have been made in the same field after, and not all of them showed the same results. As in some studies it showed a negative correlation between the price earning ration and growth, and other studies showed the opposite.

First, Form the studies that showed a negative correlation, Beaver and Morse (1978) and Chan et al. (2003) studies found a strong relationship between price earnings and growth in the beginnings years of creating the portfolio after that the correlation is gone in the coming periods. As a result of their study we can say that price earnings ratio is very limited among valuation future growth.
Second, Fairfield (1994) study showed a positive relationship between price earnings and growth. A larger sample have been used in this study, the price earnings ratios were ranked into three category: high PE, medium PE and lower PE. Even though there was a negative correlation between current earning and current price earning, there was a strong positive correlation in the future that over 5 years growth rate earnings. Also, in other study for Penman (1996), the low price earnings ratio were followed by low future growth changes.
In addition, some studies have shown a mixed results about the relationship between price earnings and future growth earnings. As it shows in previous studies the indication of price earnings is weather for future growth or firm’s cost of capital, and that may not viewed as a dependable development. Just like in a previous study for (Beaver and Morse (1978)), that found price earnings ratio representing a returning pattering over long period. And that make us think more over if that the firm’s growth rate defined a template of a wide GDP rate or price earnings ratio is the defender of future growth. However, in the point of (Chan et al. (2003)) study the sales were stable with no dedication in the long run growth earnings.

At last we can see that many different methodology have been applied above in order to test the relationship between the two variables – price earnings ratio and growth rate. Most of the test were made according to historical data and correlation in the scope of many countries and economies. But no one have been done yet in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we need to study the relationship between price earnings ratio and growth rate in the scope of Saudi Arabia’s sectors.

Thesis Statement

Thesis Statement: An improved understanding of health care disparities and differing cultural beliefs and values will lead to stronger and more open communication between health care providers and their patients, further assisting United States policymakers in tearing down the walls of disparities and providing all individuals with more effective, efficient, and higher quality health care.

Questions/Issues Being Addressed:
I. What are health disparities?
II. What specific health disparities are among us today?
III. Why do they matter? How do they affect health care/health care system/providers?
IV. What initiative/avenues are being put into place to address such disparities?

I. One of the most unique qualities that the United States possesses is its immense diversity within the population. In many ways, a diverse population is beneficial to the nation as a whole; however, there are several challenges that arise when a population is as diverse as the one that exists within the United States today. The chief among these challenges is the existence of disparities in health care. To properly analyze the effects of health care disparities, it is essential to have a broad understanding of what defines health care disparities.
A. There is no single definition that encompasses all of what is included in health disparities. The past decade or so has been a time of repeated trial and error when it comes to defining health care disparities in their entirety.
1. In 2012, the Institute of Medicine published an Unequal Treatment Report which defined health care disparities as “all differences except those due to clinical need and preferences” (Cook, McGuire & Zaslavsky, 2012).
– This is effective in highlighting the component of disparities equating to differences, but it is quite vague and leaves much of the topic undefined.
2. The Healthy People 2010 initiative defined health disparities as including “differences that occur by gender, race or ethnicity, education or income, disability, living in rural localities, or sexual orientation (Braveman, et. al., 2011).
– This demonstrates a more expansive perspective regarding what health disparities include, however, it lacks an emphasis on how these disparities affect individuals in a negative manner.
3. In 2015, the United States Department of Health and Human Services defined a health disparity as “a type of difference in health that is closely linked with social or economic disadvantage” (Thomas & Smith, 2017).
– This is key in addressing both the broadness of concepts and the negative association in a concise manner.
B. It is important to distinguish disparities from inequities to better understand what disparities are and are not.
1. Inequities in health are “specifically impacted by social, economic, and environmental conditions or influences” (Johnson, 2015).
2. Health disparities are the consequences that appear because of inequities.
C. An improved understanding of health care disparities and differing cultural beliefs and values will lead to stronger and more open communication between health care providers and their patients, further assisting policymakers in tearing down the walls of disparities and providing all individuals with more effective, efficient, and higher quality health care.

II. In the United States today, there has been steady improvements in the quality of care and overall health for most of the population. However, not all Americans are benefiting equally.
A. “While individual choices and genetic factors are barriers to achieving the full health potential, the concept of health disparities focuses on the social and political factors that have historically disadvantaged certain groups” (Johnson, 2015, p. 574).
B. Some of the social and political factors that will be discussed include race and ethnicity, gender, disability status, geographic location, and income status.
a. These factors have produced some of the health and health care disparities among us today that put limitations on continued improvement in overall quality of care and population health which causes the United States unnecessary costs while widening the equity gap.
b. Health and health care disparities exist across multiple chronic, acute, and preventable disease processes including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, HIV/Aids, and obesity (Thomas, 2014, p. 7493).
– “The rise of chronic diseases worldwide has raised concerns not only about the quality of life and life expectancy, but also the overall cost of disease that has been estimated to be over $300 billion per year in the United States alone” (Schiavo, 2015).
C. To fully understand the context of disparities in the United States, it is important to understand the country’s general population.
1. In 2015, the U.S. population was estimated at a total of 321 million people (NCHS, 2017). This statistic can be further broken down to show the differences in population characteristics that better explain the status of health and health care disparities.
2. The United States rapidly growing population is becoming more and more diverse. It consists of 61.6% white, 12.4% black, 17.6% Hispanic, 5.4% Asian, and 3.0% all others (NCHS, 2017).
3. The population statistic can be separated by gender as well; with 158 million people being male and the other 163 million being female (NCHS, 2017).
4. Another factor, that tends to be overlooked, is the disability status of U.S. citizens, which was 18.7% of the population (Brault, 2012).
5. Also, the National Center for Health Statistics estimated that 46 million people lived in rural areas (14.4%) and roughly 275 million people lived in urban areas (85.6%) in 2015.
D. With the above statistics, researchers were able to recognize the status of some health and health care disparities in the United States that affect specific groups of the population.
1. Different minorities and people of color experience greater obstacles to health that is historically linked to discrimination or exclusion (Dubay, 2012, p. 608).
a. Obesity affects racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately. This disease is associated with other chronic conditions.
b. Heart disease and cancer are the leading causes of death across race/ethnicity as well as gender.
2. Gender specific disparities are present across all social determinants of health.
a. In 2015, the life expectancy at birth was 81 years for women and 76 years for men because chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes are more prevalent in men (NCHS, 2016).
b. Also, men have a higher uninsured rate than women because men haven’t historically qualified for Medicaid (NASEM, 2016).
3. Most disabilities are acquired at birth or developed later in life. Living with a disability shapes one’s experiences of the social, economic, and environmental determinants of health.
– This can present barriers to accessing health care services and navigating the health care system (WHO, 2016).
4. Geographic location also matters because it’s been determined that rural areas haven’t made the same efforts as urban areas in improving population health
a. Compared to urban areas, rural communities have higher rates of preventable conditions (such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, and injury), and higher rates of related high-risk health behaviors (such as smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet, and limited use of seatbelts) (Crosby, 2012).
b. However, urban communities tend to influence health outcomes due to poor housing, unhealthy food choices, more pollution, and unclean water.
5. Low-income means lack of insurance which equal barriers to accessing care, poorer quality care, and worse health outcomes.
– In a study that examined health outcomes, it explained that “high-income adults were found to be in better health, to engage in healthier behaviors, to have greater use of general health and dental services, and to receive more timely screening for cancer and other health conditions, compared to low-income adults of the same race/ethnicity” (Dubay, 2012, p. 621).

III. Sir William Osler once said, “The good physician treats the disease, the great physician treats the patient with the disease.” As a nation and health system, the United States must be more focused on enhancing our knowledge of cultural diversity and the targeted populations, as well as gaining understanding of the specific social determinants of health that surround them, so that it can be free of such health disparities among its diverse population.
A. The encounters between individuals and health care providers and the cultural distance that can increase adverse health outcomes due to misunderstandings from cultural differences and beliefs, thus causing “less patient participation and providers viewing those encounters more negatively” (Franks ; Fiscella, p. 674).
1. Studies suggest that effective communication may play a critical role in reducing inequity among the different ethnicities.
2. Warner and Washington explain that policies that allow for better understanding of health care and stronger patient-provider communication will provide minorities with more effective, efficient, and higher quality care (2011).
3. Also, healthcare providers must educate themselves on the beliefs of the patients that they serve as well as how those cultures could possibly affect their health care and health outcomes.
a. The United States is quite culturally diverse thus requiring the medical education community to revamp their teaching methods to teach how patients with differing cultural backgrounds and how those individuals may require modification in regards to approaching and managing their health concerns (Vaughn et al., 2009).
b. Exposing medical students to the societal implications of health disparities has proven to be successful in altering knowledge.
B. Along with enhanced communication among health care providers and their patients, the need for higher quality and quantity of health care, primarily preventative care, must come into play.
1. Primary care physicians have been considered the gatekeepers, or the coordinator of an individual’s health care.
2. Because of the decrease in availability of primary care physicians, minorities have been at an even greater disadvantage with trying to receive basic health care.
3. The need for an increase in primary care physicians is higher as it was estimated that 32 million individuals, who were previously uninsured, will have health insurance coverage and therefore, be in need of preventative care (Bentancourt et al., 2014).
4. Because of the need for improvement in the delivery of preventative care, the Affordable Care Act stepped in and supported several different programs (Hamel et al., 2015).
– Most of the “projects emphasize care coordination, improved chronic disease management, greater access to primary care, and administrative simplification” (Hamel, 2014).

IV. Even though there are already health reforms and legislation that try to identify and reduce disparities, it has been proposed that “future efforts should focus on identifying gaps where existing measures and program efforts are insufficient, enhancing implementation of existing measures, and addressing barriers to their development or implementation” (Ng et al., 2017).
A. In order to truly abolish health and health care disparities, there is a necessity for health care policy makers to have a deep understanding of the causes of social inequalities and health disparities.
1. Despite ongoing clinical research, there is continued growth of disparities in the United States health care system, thus a combination of ideas will need to be pooled in order to minimize these health disparities.
2. Although evidence is mixed, it has been studied that managed care organizations are more responsible for defined populations; therefore, they are superior for concentrating on disparities, which requires a population approach to health care (Franks & Fiscella, 2008).
3. To truly make successful utilization of all the available resources, it is essential to consider social circumstances and inequalities among individuals.
4. The aim is “to reverse the systemic and personal factors which contribute to the failure of the U.S. health care system to meet the needs of diverse patient groups,” resulting in the drastic reduction or, ideally, the elimination of health care disparities (Butler & Freedy, p. 207).
5. By understanding certain relationships, the United States can develop the proper policies to reduce disparities in health care.
a. There is the idea that by improving the knowledge of cultural differences and then communicating and addressing these socioeconomic disparities between the providers and patients, the United States health care system has a greater ability to provide higher quality of care to each and every individual.
b. Betancourt determined that a new health care system was justly needed and within reach, describing the ideal system as one that was “culturally competent, equitable, ethical, and high quality” (2014, p. 147).
B. By “improving educational levels, income redistribution, and universal health insurance coverage”, health disparities in the U.S. health system can be reduced (Franks & Fiscella, p. 672).
C. Efforts to reduce health care disparities and mold such a system have been brought on by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Disparities Action Plan, which desired to provide equal access to each and every American, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which aimed to improve access to health insurance (Gostin et al., p. 19).
1. Although it is a very controversial health care reform and there are many kinks in relation to the ACA, it can also be seen as a step in the process of development versus an end goal to solving the United States health care system (Colander, 2017).
2. The basic issue with the United States health care system is that health care costs an astronomical amount and is inaccessible to many, even though it should not.
3. Although escalating health care costs and the need to reduce such is what drove the U.S. to a health care reform, a major flaw with “the ACA is that it tries to deal with the U.S. health care problem as an insurance problem, when in fact the fundamental problem with the U.S. health care system is a cost and accessibility problem” (Colander, p. 173).
a. Currently, the U.S. health system is a jumbled mess of the following systems that do not mix effectively: “If government pays, experts appointed by government decide what health care will be available to individuals, and how much government will pay for it. If individuals pay, then individuals decide. If insurance companies pay, then insurance companies decide” (Colander, p. 174).
b. The hope for this new health care reform was also to strengthen the quality of health care being distributed among the population, specifically those in need.
c. As stated before, there have been many flaws in the Affordable Care Act but it has also expanding health care coverage to those who did not have access previously.
D. The goal for redesigning the health system is to not only reduce the previously discussed disparities but to mainly improve the quality of care and aptly distribute care based upon need.

V. As the United States continues to become more diverse, it needs to be understood that each culture brings its own beliefs and values which may differ from our traditional or set ways.
A. It is essential then that the U.S. health care system concentrate and invest in the social and environmental factors that contribute to inequality, specifically income inequality, and its impact on the health of the underprivileged in order to drastically improve the United States health system and have the ability to resolve any gaps in care.
B. Times are changing and our country is now more diverse than ever. The effects of cultural beliefs and social changes have definitely been responsible for molding the U.S. health care system.
C. The differences in the beliefs about health care that are at play have had a direct effect on the health care delivery system, and providing care to the different socioeconomic groups is a necessary plan for reducing health inequalities. Therefore, it is indispensable to create a health system that has the ability to provide high quality care to every patient, regardless of any of the reasons discussed.
D. By improving the understanding of health care disparities and differing cultural beliefs and values, the United States health care system will lead health care providers a their patients to have stronger and more open communication, thus assisting policymakers in obliterating disparities and providing each and every individual with more effective, efficient, and higher quality health care.

?Introduction.

Live in twenty-century era fully change the ways of working in all area of life. Modern technology hundred percent influenced the changes in education system. This revolution era needs a concrete development plan in education, but over time it must have some factor that will defect the plan which is can be a factor that limits of the contemporary role of education management. The educational institution that applied this new environment will be more modern and successful where people in there does not look like having a traditional way of teaching and learning such as only using the book as their available sources of knowledge.Innovative happen when the people have a creation of ideas, can do something that is outside of the box and keeps the task to be practice. Creativity and innovation are more important in the twenty-first century whereby the knowledge society has been developing so well (Mishra, 2014). One of the factors that people can reveal their creative and innovative skill is through education. It shows because in education have a learning process where it is can help especially student to hit the road by showing what they have.

European Commission declaring the year of Creativity and Innovation by aware of the importance of creativity and innovation on personal, social and economic developments ( Tarman, ). It is shown on how the topics have been discussed entire year in 2010 such as pre-school, the promotion of artistic and other creative fields during primary and secondary education; fore-fronting cultural diversity as the source for creativity and innovation; supporting mathematics, science and technology education for development of creative minds; performing regional and local development strategies based on creativity and innovation (EurActiv, 2010). Based on this view show that starting the year 2010, people already concern and awareness about the importance and being creative especially in education. This is because it can help people especially their children in order to have a good mind in handling their education moments.

Based on the research done by Looney (2009), general education will take over latter category that for sure improved a way to dealing with the student by classroom-based teaching, learning and assessment, and the changes in organization or management of the system. From that research, the conclusion can be where the changes in whole organization systems including the management will affect the student in order to be creative. The nature of online instruction does not allow the instructor to perceived important non-verbal cues that signal in order to be understanding. Other than that, the successful online student can be described self-motivated, self-directed, exhibiting an internal locus of control with above average executive functioning, communication, interaction and technological skills ( Kauffman, 2015 ).

2

2. Lesson outcomes (5)
By incorporating globalization into the learners’ curriculum; learners should be able to describe how they view and understand globalization. Learners should be able to identify negative and positive effects of globalization (Learnalberta.ca, 2018).
The lesson outcomes set out in the CAPS document for English First Additional Language Senior Phase can be applied to globalization as well. The CAPS outcomes state: “identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking” (Education.gov.za, 2018) – this can be applied to globalization in terms of learners being able to identify the water scarcity and solving the problem by coming up with new and creative ideas to save water. This can be incorporated, using the attached lesson plan as guidance, by letting the learners identify a problem (relating to globalization of course) and have the learners research this problem and come up with possible solutions and create a useful educational brochure which will create awareness about the problem as well as provide possible options on how this problem can be solved.

The outcome from CAPS stating: “use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and the health of others” (Education.gov.za, 2018) – this can come into play by taking the attached lesson plan into consideration, the learners can make use of technology (finding YouTube videos about globalization) and incorporate that into their brochures and then presenting it to the rest of the class.
3. LTSMs (educational media) (5)
Globalization 101 is a website that offers information on various important topics such as education, law, environment, health, human rights and so forth. The website also has a section where the most current news and topics of the day is posted so that the visitors can keep up to date to what is happening in the world around them (Marino, 2017). The teacher can use this website to see what the current topics of discussion is and incorporate them in the classroom; this website is also a great source of information for the learners to use in their classwork or for the teacher to use as hand outs and give the learners small inserts of the website.

Utilizing YouTube is a great way of getting a message across to learners and simultaneously making use of technology. Learners like to watch videos and learning something from watching videos is a bonus. Teachers can make use of YouTube’s library where globalization themed videos can be searched for; the teacher can search key terms relating to globalization (Marino, 2017).

4. Lesson phases
a.) Theme (10)
A great way to incorporate globalization into the curriculum is to make use of topics that do not have set themes; for example, reading a brochure, writing a newspaper article, writing informal letters, and so forth. The teacher can choose the theme of globalization and ask the learners to write a newspaper article on Ebola (which is a current topic of conversation around the world). The learners can therefore do research on the topic and write their own newspaper article on raising awareness about Ebola.

The teacher can also allocate a theme for each week and use that theme as a competition. As mentioned in this assignment; the teacher can for example take the topic of: being better responsible citizens. This can be turned into a competition by making the theme: water as a valuable source. The learners need to come up with fun and creative ways to save water and the learner with the best idea will get a small prize or will be allocated as student of the week. The following week the teacher can let the learners implement this and have a competition to see which learner saved the most water and that learner will then be the winner of the week.
b.) Introduction (5)
The teacher can maybe implement a weekly routine for example every Monday morning before class start; to have a 10-minute discussion on key issues which they saw on the news the previous week. For example, the teacher can choose a topic: climate change and disasters; and the learners can discuss this and this will also give the learners an opportunity to give their own opinions about things that matter (King, 2012).

In the introduction of the lesson plan attached; the teacher can start the lesson off by discussing an important issue that the learners will later in the lesson write their brochure on; this can then form part of a class discussion as an introduction which will get the learners to participate in class and also create awareness of these issues. Learners can then form their own opinions and share them with their classmates.

c.) Development (10)
The teacher can for example through the use of the lesson plan attached on reading a brochure; first discuss what a brochure is about and what important information needs to be on a brochure. The teacher can incorporate globalization by letting the learners design their own brochure which addresses important issues for example human rights; climate change; how to be better responsible global citizens. The learners can do the brochure as homework and the next day in class they can present their brochure to their fellow classmates; this will create awareness and also promote class discussions (King, 2012).

The teacher can even have a competition relating to the topic; for example, how to be better responsible global citizens – the teacher can explain how the learners need to use water sparingly as it is a valuable source and let the learners in the class see how much water they can save or who can come up with great ideas to save water (using bath water to water plants and so on). The teacher can give a small prize to the winner or elect that winner as student of the week.
d.) Consolidation (5)
As part of the consolidation the learners can reflect on their experience of the issue discussed in the lesson and tell the class what they learnt and how this has changed their point of view on the matter. Learners can also discuss how they would implement being a better responsible citizen and share ideas on how they will change their lifestyle in benefit of the environment.
5. General discussion (10)
It is very important for a teacher in the 21st century to know what globalization is in order to teach the learners in their class about globalization. Teachers should be committed to help their learners to become responsible globalized citizens. Teachers should also be aware of what is happening in the world and stay up to date with current news and events (Guo, 2014).

It is important for teachers to note that they should not rewrite their whole lesson plans but that they should be aware of where globalization can be incorporated into their lesson plans. Teachers should grasp each opportunity that they possibly can to incorporate globalization in their lesson plans in an attempt to better educate their learners and teach them about current relatable topics that they might not have known about or given enough thought to realize that it is a problem the world is facing. Bibliography
Guo, L. (2014). Preparing Teachers to Educate for 21st Century Global Citizenship: Envisioning and Enacting. Journal of Global Citizenship & Equity Education, online 4(1). Available at: http://journals.sfu.ca/jgcee/index.php/jgcee/article/download/121/154 Accessed 11 Jun. 2018.

King, R. (2012). 10 tips to promote global citizenship in the classroom. The Guardian. online Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/2012/nov/09/global-citizenship-10-teaching-tips Accessed 12 Jun. 2018.

Learnalberta.ca. (2018). Globalization Awareness – Get with It! / Instructional Supports for All Students: High School Social Studies. online Available at: http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/ssisr/html/10-4/ri1/globalization_awareness_get_with_it.html Accessed 12 Jun. 2018.

Marino, K. (2017). 10 Teacher Resources For Global Learning -. online TeachThought. Available at: https://www.teachthought.com/education/10-teacher-resources-for-global-learning/ Accessed 12 Jun. 2018.

Yes

Yes, by setting up a formal salary structure is being fair to the employees because the salary being paid based on the job task rather than pay the salary based on gender. When the salary structure being fair, it leads satisfaction among the employees and as a result the turnover will be at low rate. Besides, the company also can control their financial operation by doing budget allocation planning for their business operation. Moreover, the formal salary structure will make the employees clear on the amount pay for his or her job position. Thus, it can make easier to the related manager to do a process of salary payment

The study remarks important weaknesses in some of the patient satisfactory dimensions including general appearance

The study remarks important weaknesses in some of the patient satisfactory dimensions including general appearance, responsiveness, apathy and assurance. However, it provide an evidence of having no significant difference for the chosen satisfactory dimensions between the health care centers providing family-medicine services compared to those with no family-medicine ones.Improving health care services and ensuring patient’s satisfaction has become a global priority. And health care provider should focus on the fact that the patient is the most important person in a health care system no matter what system or model is implemented.
Therefore, by revealing no significant difference in patient’s satisfactory dimensions between the health care centers providing family-medicine services and those those with no family-medicine specialized services, recommendations of the present study are made for both types of the health care models in Basra. And these include:
1. A special attention should be made to improve the “general appearance” of the health facilities in Basra. This include:
• The general infrastructural appearance for the health facility with appropriate waiting areas for the attendees.
• Cleanliness and lighting of the facility
• The general look and appearance of the health workers and service providers

2. Implementing focused training programs for improving and continuous monitoring of responsiveness, apathy and assurance of the health care providers with the patients. These programs should ensure:
• Providing prompt service and help with fast response to the patient’s need
• Gaining the patient’s trust and confidence (by all the health care providers in the facility)
• Ensuring politeness and good communication skills with the patients attending the health facility with the willingness and capability to give personalized attention to each patient.

Play is one of the most important needs children have

Play is one of the most important needs children have. Thus, it is one way children can learn because it helps them to manage their feelings and to cope with upsetting things that happen in their lives. This is why Lev Vygotsky emphasizes that learning through play helps children to comprehend better in school. This paper will discuss the justification of this statement and explain how it can help enhance lower graders’ performance in school.

According to English dictionary ( ), “play means to act in a manner such that one has fun; to engage in activities expressly for the purpose of recreation or entertainment.” Play provides opportunities for children to experience learning in a meaningful way. As Silva (1992) stated, “play strengthens instincts needed for the future….it is a child’s way of practicing and preparing for adulthood.” It is a means by which children can develop their skills and capabilities to be effective learners thereby developing the brain. Thus, learning through play is a term used in education and psychology to describe how children can learn to make sense of the world around them (Wikipedia). Young children’s affinity and intrinsic need to play is a clever and sophisticated resource that is not capitalized upon enough by teachers. From the way children wonderfully play, the eclectic mix of skills and innate motivation they demonstrate at a very early age enables them to discover new things efficiently and access what they want. Moreover, children possess a natural curiosity to explore, and play acts as a medium to do so. Play to be considered an activity, measure of inner control, ability to bend reality and strong internally based motivation for playing must be experienced (Dietze & Koshin, 2011). The foundation of intellect, social, physical, and emotional skills essential for success in education and life is nurtured in children by play (Canadian Council on Learning, 2006).

According to Bodrova and Leong in their research on Vygoskian perspectives stated that, “At its core, Vygotsky’s cultural-historical theory considers the history of human development to be a complex interplay between the processes of natural, biologically determined development and the cultural development created by the interaction of a growing individual with other people” (2011;372). Moreover, these interactions prove more than the simple acquisition of the values, expectations, and competencies promoted by a specific culture (Bodrova & Leong, 2011). Bodrova and Leong (2011) went on to say that rather the entire system of naturally determined “lower” mental functions, such as involuntary attention, rote memory, and sensory-motor thought, becomes restructured to produce what Vygotsky described as higher mental functions; “When the child enters into culture, he not only takes something from culture, assimilates something. Takes something from outside, but culture itself profoundly refines the natural state of behavior of the child and alters completely anew the whole course of his development” (1997a, 223). However, Vygotsky meant only one kind of play, namely, the sociodramatic or make-believe play typical for preschoolers and children of primary school age (Bodrova & Leong, 2011). Thus, Vygotsky’s definition of play does not include many kinds of other activities, such as physical activities, games, object manipulation, and explorations that most people, educators included, still call ‘play’.

Furthermore, Bodrova and Leong (2011) cited an article from Vygotsky’s research paper that defined higher mental functions. They cited that higher mental functions are behaviors that are sign mediated, intentional, and internalized according to Vygotsky. In addition, Vygotsky described this development as a gradual process involving the transition from inter-individual (“intermental”) or shared to individual (“intramental”). As such, for young children, most of the higher mental functions still exist only in their inter-individual form as they share those functions with adults or with other children. “Sociodramatic or make believe play, according to Vygotsky, has three features: children create an imaginary situation, take on and act out roles, and follow a set of rules determined by these specific roles. Each of these features plays an important function in the development of higher mental functions; Vygotsky associated the creating of an imaginary situation and the acting out of roles with children’s emerging ability to carry on two types of actions, external and internal, internal actions being a defining characteristic of higher mental functions” (2011;374).

In play, these internal actions “operations on the meanings” in Vygotsky’s words remain dependent on the external operations on the objects (Bodrova ; Leong, 2011). However, the very emergence of the internal actions signals the beginning of a child’s transition from earlier forms of thought processes – sensory motor and visual representational to a more advanced symbolic thought. At first more stimulus bound, preschoolers gradually learn to transcend ostensive reality. The key to understanding this lies with the knowledge of play, how children learn and develop, and how they are supported and extend their understanding. As natural players, children start from a point of intrinsic desire to be involved and motivated in their play. The Zone of Proximal Development concept developed by Lev Vygotsky, suggests that children require activities that support past learning and encourage new learning at a slightly more difficult level (Bodrova & Leong, 2011). Vygotsky believed that social engagement and collaboration with others are powerful forces that transform children’s thinking. Beginning from the time they are toddlers and start to play near others, they are learning about relationships thereby developing socially and emotionally. By working with others, children learn to be collaborative, sensitive to feelings of others, fair and responsible. Moreover, by being social, children learn to listen actively, develop routines of turn- taking, co-operating and sharing opinions. Play teaches about relationships and is one important way children develop good language skills, other than that they also learn to express and work through their feelings. As they get older, play teaches about getting turns and sharing. Through play, children learn to negotiate, for example, when two children want the same toy or want to make rules for games. Children learn about being either a leader or follower. They also learn how to ask to join a game. Children develop language through stories and books, songs, nursery rhymes, games with friends and adults talking and listening.
In the early stage of childhood (1-3 years), the child’s problem solving skills are influenced by suggestions from others, conveyed in gesture and speech. Children develop intellectually through play, for example, when doing activities such as hitting a mobile and making it move, this cause them to learn about cause and effect. Posting a box, this teaches them about space and size. Even so, playing games such as those of sorting puzzles helps them learn about shapes, numbers, and size. Arranging toys in order as well helps them acquire about grouping and numbers, and making their own games, in which they learn creativity. In addition, children develop physical skills by doing activities such as picking up small things, pushing and pulling toys, riding on toys, using crayons or paint, throwing and catching, climbing toys and hitting balls.
The Northern Ireland Curriculum (1996) strongly agrees that play helps children develop the fundamental skills of literacy, numeracy, and communication. Counting to establish what number of objects is in a collection enables the child to know things they could not possibly know without counting, in particular how many objects are in any collection containing more than about seven objects. NIC (1996) agree that play also provides rich and varied contexts for developing skills such as observing, organizing, recording, interpreting, and predicting. Moreover, play promotes positive attitudes to school and to learning. It provides opportunities to learn in a practical way, develop movement and manipulative skills, develop natural curiosity and stimulates imagination in children. From playing, children attain opportunities to explore, investigate, solve problems, and make decisions.

Furthermore, play is important according to The Children’s Play Council (1998) because it promotes children’s development, learning, creativity, and independence. CPC (1998) continue to say that it keeps children healthy and fosters social inclusion, as children understand the people and places in their lives. Through play, children find out about themselves, their abilities, and interests. Moreover, play is therapeutic and helps children to deal with difficulty or painful circumstances such as emotional stress.

Dewey and Vygotsky, assert that education should be based on the principles that the child is part of society and that its learning is social. The school should encourage what is social within the child to blossom on an individual basis. What is relevant to social needs and issues determines the curriculum, preferably in such a way that the child sees social needs as its needs. The teacher should often turn to the child’s interests for information about what the child needs to know, because the child is a social animal and exists as part of the society. The child’s needs are imbued with the social needs of the society around it and in turning to them; we find the best way to make the child’s education relevant to the society around it, as well as to the child. The start of preschool stage (3-7 years) is marked by beginnings of an analytic approach to objects. This is reasonable as children at this stage are beginning to play with such things as construction toys and dress up dolls and to engage in construction and building with materials found to hand.
Play is instrumental in achieving mastery of the object and furthering symbolic ability. Vygotsky notes, “Play is a transitional stage in this direction. At that critical moment when a stick in particular an object becomes a pivot for severing the meaning of a horse from a real horse, one of the basic psychological structures determining the child’s relationship to reality is radically altered” (1967, 12). Another way make believe play contributes to the development of higher mental functions is by promoting intentional behavior. It becomes possible because of the inherent relationship that exists between the roles children play and the roles they need to follow when playing these roles.
In conclusion, play is the leading source of development in preschool years. Play development can be compared to the instruction development relationship, but play provides a background for changes in needs and in consciousness of a much wider nature. Moreover, play is the source of development and creates the zone of proximal development.

It has been difficult to evaluate the meaning of barrenness as assessing the predominance of fruitfulness troubles

It has been difficult to evaluate the meaning of barrenness as assessing the predominance of fruitfulness troubles, fruitlessness or automatic childlessness is hampered by varieties in the meanings of these conditions (Schmidt and Munster, 19953; Kols and Nguyen, 19974). Marchbanks et al’,19895 has opined that fruitlessness is a condition that can be viewed as a heterogeneous gathering of medical issues, impact capable by a scope of hazard factors.

The meaning of fruitlessness significantly affects clinical results, incorporating those announced in explore thinks about. Definitions fluctuate as far as whether the condition is distinguished without anyone else report, or in view of an existence schedule of regenerative occasions, a doctor interview or a doctor determination. WHO 20026 discloses barrenness to be the trouble in considering and achieving an effective pregnancy by a person of having a fulfilled relationship if two years without the utilization of contraceptives. There is an absence of a settled meaning of barrenness, other than the reasonable translation taken after by the WHO.The absence of uniform definitions has bothered research on fruitlessness. While plainly barrenness, childlessness or sterility all allude to the failure of couples to imagine or bear youngsters when wanted, there has a tendency to be some variety in the particular definitions embraced by clinicians, demographers and different specialists. (Jejeebhoy ,1998) Variation happens to a great extent in (a) the reference time frame used to build up barrenness; and (b) in the order of ladies who have encountered pregnancy yet not a live birth.

For instance, the WHO definition, drawn up by the Scientific Group on the Epidemiology of Infertility (WHO,1991) has utilized a multi year reference period: fruitlessness can be essential, if the couple has never imagined regardless of dwelling together and introduction to pregnancy (not utilizing contraception) for a time of two years; essential barrenness is likewise alluded to as essential sterility; Infertility can be auxiliary, if a couple neglects to consider following a past pregnancy, in spite of living together and presentation to pregnancy (without contraception, breastfeeding or baby blues amenorrhoea) for a time of two years; this is otherwise called optional sterility. While WHO characterizes fruitlessness as inability to imagine in spite of two long stretches of dwelling together and introduction to pregnancy, numerous investigations embrace their own particular definitions. Clinicians and no less than one network based investigation in Egypt (EFCS,1995) have utilized one year of unsuccessful endeavors to consider as the foundation for infertility.• conversely network reviews measure barrenness as far as childlessness (Farley et.al ,1988), (Cates et.al,1985). Childlessness is characterized as the extent of couples who have not had a live birth when of meeting, notwithstanding no less than five long periods of living together and presentation to pregnancy and without contraception, breastfeeding or baby blues amenorrhoea. Dissimilar to a couple with essential barrenness, a childless couple additionally incorporates the individuals who have effectively considered however have neglected to convey a live birth. Correspondingly, auxiliary sterility in these investigations alludes to couples experiencing issues bearing a second or higher request birth, in spite of typically five long periods of introduction, as in the definition above. The multi year reference period is regularly utilized, yet not really, in statistic reviews.

On breaking up the Sanskrit-originated word

On breaking up the Sanskrit-originated word, Satyagraha stands for two concepts – truth and the insistence on bringing it to light – which are entwined in its meaning. According to Gandhi, Satya and the Agraha to utter it are the most effective weapons to combat violence. Mahatma Gandhi believed that the propagators of violence were driven by their belief in the “absolute truth”. In their persistence to establish the truth all over the world, they ignored the fact that the truth was different for everyone. Hence, the concept of “partial truth” was introduced. To a terrorist, “jihad” or terrorism may be one way to cleanse the world of all wrongs. However, to his victims, the same cannot be true. We exist in this world as relative, finite beings of limited embodied consciousness. Our knowledge is confined by our consciousness, influenced by our surroundings.

If the income rises

If the income rises, the amount is also necessary. When income drops, they also demand it. But if you double your income, you’re not buying a specific product or service twice. You have as much as a liter of ice cream you want to eat, no matter how rich you are. This is the concept of the marginal utility comes into the picture. The first cup of ice cream is a good taste. You can have something else. However, the marginal tool will then begin to decline to the point where it is no longer desired.The price of the replacement product or service will want less things because it increases the use cost of the product you are applying. For example, if the gas price rises to $4 per gallon in 2008, the demand for the lobster dropped. Gas is a good complement to the lobster. The cost of running a lobster step with gas prices.